We are going to discuss all you need to know about Canaglfilozin
What is Canaglfilozin?
Canagliflozin is an oral medication that reduces the blood glucose level so that doctors prescribe it for the treatment of some cases of diabetes mellitus (DM).
DM is an endocrinological disease in which there’s a deficiency in insulin hormone or total absence of it.
Thus, the glucose will accumulate in the blood and body tissues leading to multiple complications.
Types of DM
Mainly, there are two types of diabetes:
Type 1 DM
It affects people early in life; during childhood or adolescence, and it occurs because of the total absence of insulin in the body.
The pancreas fails to secrete insulin because of damage to the cells secreting it, so the disease appears early and maybe presented firstly by diabetic coma.
This patient is dependent on insulin replacement for his whole life, but it may be accompanied by oral antidiabetes medication in order to allow better control.
Type 2 DM
This type appears during adulthood because of the relative deficiency of insulin, that’s to say there is little insulin in the body or resistance to it.
Here, the patient is treated mainly by oral antidiabetes medications.
Indications of Canaglfilozin
Canagliflozin is helpful for patients suffering from type 2 DM, but it can help those with type 1 DM also.
In type 2 DM, it can be combined with other antidiabetic medications for better control of glucose, while in cases of type 1 DM the physician will recommend Cananglfilozin together with insulin.
In all cases, patients on Cananglfilozin should undergo diet control and regular physical exercise.
Canagliflozin reduces the risk of cardiovascular-related death and myocardial infarction in diabetic cardiac patients.
Moreover, it reduces the need for hospitalization and death because of heart failure.
In addition, it reduces the risk of severe renal impairment and doubling of serum creatinine level.
Mechanism of action of Canaglfilozin
It enhances the excretion of glucose from the blood stream to urine.
Side effect of Canaglfilozin
- Genital fungal infection in females. This is the most common side effect.
- Urinary infection and increased frequency of urination.
- Increased thirsty and dehydration.
- Male genital fungal infection.
- Hard stool and constipation.
- Blurred vision and drowsiness.
- Acute kidney injury
- Systemic allergic reaction.
- Infection of the upper urinary tract, that’s to say in the kidneys and ureters.
- Necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum (Fournier’s gangrene)
Precautions to use
A patient on treatment with Cananglfilozin should keep himself safe from dehydration and hypotension; because this puts him at risk of amputation as well as acute renal injury.
This risk of amputation is higher if there is a positive history of amputation before, so that patient should be well hydrated.
The peripheral circulation status as well as serum creatinine should be monitored frequently.
In addition, the patient should keep alert to manifestations of urinary tract infection and should seek help as early as possible.
The patient should also follow all of the measures of hygiene in order to guard against infections.
The patient should avoid drinking alcohol.
- Patients on treatment with insulin or oral antidiabetic medications should use Cananglfilozin with caution because of the risk of getting very low glucose levels.
- It has a drug interaction with rifampin and digoxin.
Dose and overdose of Canaglfilozin
Canagliflozin comes in a tablet form with 2 concentrations; 100 and 300 mg.
Usually, the physician will start with 100 mg and may be increased to 300 mg, to be taken once daily before breakfast.
The dose should be modified in patients with kidney and liver impairment under the direction of the physician.
The patient should contact a poison center in cases of over dose.
Pregnancy and lactation
There are no sufficient studies on the effects of canagliflozin during pregnancy but physicians don’t recommend it during pregnancy, especially the second and third trimester.
This is because of its effect on the kidneys and urinary tract as well as the risk of infection.
Canagliflozin was found in the rat’s milk but no sufficient data about its secretion in the human milk, so it is better to avoid Cananglfilozin during the lactation period.